Top 30 System Design Interview Questions and Answers in 2023

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Systems design is the process of defining system elements such as modules, architecture, components, interfaces, and data for a system based on the requirements specified. It is the process of identifying, creating, and designing systems to satisfy the particular objectives and requirements of a firm or organization. A systemic approach is essential for a well-functioning and coherent system. A bottom-up or top-down strategy is required to account for all system-related variables.

1. What Do You Believe Are The Significant Difficulties Confronting It Workers Today?

Keeping up with emerging technologies is the most difficult challenge for IT professionals today. Every day, new breakthroughs are made, which means we must always refresh our skills and learn new things. I am constantly looking for ways to better my own learning process and keep up with the current developments.

2. What Drew You To A Profession In Information Technology?

I’ve always been fascinated with computers and technology. My father got me my first computer, an ancient desktop when I was 10 years old. I spent several hours studying how to utilize it and ultimately taught myself how to create web pages. This piqued my interest in coding and drove me to study computer science. I now like using technology to solve issues.

3. How Much Exposure To Cloud-Based Applications Have You Had?

Throughout my career, I’ve worked with a variety of cloud-based services. I used to work for an accounting company where we used cloud-based software to monitor our customers’ financial health. This enabled us to access customer information from any location without the need to install software on our computers. It also makes it simple to work with other accountants as necessary.

Later, I worked for a marketing firm that depended largely on cloud-based technologies. These applications were utilized to produce content for our clients and to store all of our data online. This made it easy to work with team members and rapidly acquire critical information.

4. How Should A Shared Disk Be Designed?

This system operates through differential synchronization. It is the process of keeping two or more copies of the same document synchronized with each other in real-time so that if one version is changed, the same change occurs in all the others. Although it is a difficult task, differential synchronization is scalable and fault tolerant. Ownership, event passing, and three-way merges are the three most frequent techniques. I had to implement this most recently to facilitate in-house document sharing for one of our clients.

This system employs differential synchronization. It is the process of keeping two or more copies of the same document in real-time synchronized with each other, so that if one version changes, the same change occurs in all the others. Although it is a difficult task, differential synchronization is scalable and fault tolerant. Ownership, event passing, and three-way merges are the three most common approaches. I had to do this most recently to support in-house document sharing for one of our clients.

5. What Exactly Do You Mean By Load Balancing? What Is Its Significance Of It In System Design?

Load balancing is the process of efficiently distributing incoming traffic across a group of various backend servers. These servers are referred to as server pools. Modern websites are built to handle millions of client requests and respond in a timely and dependable manner. More servers will be required to serve these requests. In such a case, it is critical to efficiently distribute request traffic across each server so that they are not overburdened. The load balancer acts as a traffic cop, intercepting requests and routing them across available servers so that no single server is overburdened, potentially degrading application performance.

6. What Is The Relationship Between Performance And Scalability?

A system is said to be scalable if the performance improvement is proportional to the additional resources. In general, increased scalability performance refers to providing more task units. However, this can also imply the ability to manage larger task units as datasets develop. If the program has a performance issue, the system will be slow for only one user. However, if there is a scalability issue, the system may be fast for a single user but slow under large user pressure on the program.

7. What Are The Requirements For Designing A Waste Collection System?

One of my recent clients need extra memory, however, there was a problem with constantly having to deal with memory deallocation. The purpose of garbage collection is to make a system appear to have an infinite quantity of memory. What is happening is that the system is reusing memory. When a system becomes slow, a garbage collector enters and collects what is no longer in use. I configured their system so that if an object is referenced or recursive, it stays. Then it goes through meticulously, marking anything that hasn’t been referenced and sweeping only that. Using the mark and sweep method with the void command assists in repurposing and opening up memory that is no longer in use. With this in place, my customer had a speedier system that required less maintenance.

8. Are You At Ease Working With A Variety Of Technologies?

I am comfortable dealing with a wide range of technology because I enjoy learning new things. Due to company growth, we had to integrate various new technologies into our network in my previous employment. These modifications piqued my interest since they provided an opportunity for me to learn more about alternative networking platforms. It helped me become acquainted with many different forms of technology that I would not have known about otherwise.

9. How Do You Handle Sensitive Information Regarding Clients And Coworkers?

I always make sure to store any documents holding sensitive information when not in use in lockable drawers or cabinets. While I’m working on projects that require handling private client information, I keep it in password-protected files on my computer so it’s out of sight when I’m not using it. In addition, before discarding any documents containing sensitive information, I shred them.

10. Can You Tell Me About An Instance When You Recommended A Technology Upgrade That Helped A Firm Save Money?

In my previous position as an IT professional, I observed that our firm was spending a significant amount of money on software upgrades for old PCs. After investigating several possibilities, I suggested that we convert all of our desktops to laptops so that workers could work remotely. This adjustment saved the organization thousands of dollars in software expenditures each year.

11. What Would Your Perfect Project Look Like If You Could Design It?

An ambitious software development project is what I would like to do. The application would be built for internal use, with the customer being one of the organization’s internal divisions. The project team would be well-versed in the application and the end-user community. The timeframe would give us enough time to finish the project, and the budget would allow us to collect all necessary materials. The project specifications would be explicit and transparent, and stakeholders would be ready to provide timely feedback.

12. What Budget Management Experience Do You Have?

I have extensive experience managing project budgets. I’ve worked on projects with budgets ranging from $4 to $6 million. I appreciate the necessity of keeping projects on budget, and I aim to do so without affecting the work’s quality or punctuality. Having worked on numerous projects, I understand how to find places where I may save money without affecting the entire project.

13. What Actions Do You Take To Effectively Collaborate With Clients And Other Project Stakeholders?

For any project manager, communicating effectively with the project’s stakeholders and clients is essential. Holding a project meeting early in the process to identify the project goals, parameters, resources, and budget is one of the actions I do to develop a positive relationship with the team. I will ensure that everyone understands and is dedicated to this. I use the Agile approach to convene stand-up meetings to assess project progress, identify areas of concern, and rectify any issues that may have a long-term impact on the project.

14. How Does One Go About Creating A Recommendation System?

There was a difficulty with one of my first and most devoted clients’ customers finding options on their website. Their search had to be precise to find the merchandise. I proposed that we put in place a recommendation system to improve client happiness and possibly sales. I designed the system to weave information tapestry to give our client’s customers suggestions based on user similarity, using the most prominent approach of collaborative filtering. My client’s revenues increased by 10% as the system became more user-friendly.

15. Do You Have Any Expertise Instructing Others On How To Use Computer Software Or Other Departmental Tools?

In my previous position as an IT professional, I assisted in training new workers on how to use our company’s software program. The training was part of a bigger onboarding process that included addressing office policies and procedures. I made a PowerPoint presentation with screenshots and detailed instructions on how to use the program. This allowed me to cover all features of the program in a single two-hour session. Following the first training, I also offered extra assistance as needed.

16. We Aim To Optimize Our Software Development Process. Tell Me About An Approach You’d Employ To Accomplish This.

To begin, I would examine the software development lifecycle, which comprises requirements collecting, design, coding, testing, and deployment. I’d then develop an improvement strategy for each stage of the lifecycle. In my previous employment, for example, we experienced challenges with our coding process since it was taking too long to complete. We chose to include the Agile technique in our coding process in order to deliver projects more quickly. This allowed us to achieve deadlines more quickly.

17. What Exactly Is The W3c, And Why Is It Important?

The World Wide Consortium (W3C) is an international community dedicated to creating and standardizing the web. Enforcing these standards as a web developer guarantees that web content is accessible in all browsers and reaches all audiences while optimizing the user experience. W3C-compliant CSS and XML, for example, allow every website to work similarly and enhance SEO.

18. What Exactly Is Responsive Web Design?

Responsive Web Design is the process of building web pages that are readily scaled across devices with varying resolutions. To offer an ideal viewing experience for all visitors, the structure of the web page will be automatically modified across all platforms and devices. It is achieved without any data loss or screen tearing. A responsive web page, which adheres to the notion of flexibility, adjusts to the size of the screen. Media queries and flexible grids are used by responsive websites to edit styles based on device parameters such as display type, width, and height.

19.  What Issues Should You Be On The Lookout For To Suggest A Project Is Running Behind Schedule?

I devote a lot of time and energy to project schedule monitoring. Every day, because I use the Agile technique, I can detect concerns that affect a project’s timetable. Incomplete tasks, criticism from the project team concerning a lack of resources, and requests for additional time to complete tasks indicate that a project has slipped behind schedule.

20. What Are Some Of Your Most Critical Skills As A Computer Systems Analyst?

Communication is, in my opinion, one of the most critical skills for a computer systems analyst. Since this position needs me to collaborate with many different departments, I must be able to accurately convey technical concepts to non-technical individuals. Problem-solving is another vital ability for this career. As a computer systems analyst, I am frequently entrusted with resolving complicated issues. I’ve always been good at finding novel answers to problems.

21. How Would You Go About Locating And Fixing A Computer System’s Technical Issues For A Company?

I would begin by obtaining information about what was happening within the system to assess the situation. I would then study the data to see if there were any patterns or trends that could assist me in determining the core cause of the problem. Once I’ve identified the cause of the problem, I’ll devise a solution strategy based on my prior experience with comparable scenarios. Finally, I would put the solution into action and monitor the computer systems to ensure that the problem does not reoccur.

22. Do You Have Any Previous Experience Working With Legacy Systems?

I’ve worked on various projects where we had to integrate new software with old systems. I always begin by investigating the various components of the legacy system to gain an understanding of its capabilities. Then, I collaborate with my team to develop a plan for updating the system. We do this in stages to avoid overloading the network. We were able to upgrade the system while keeping compatibility by moving it step by step.

23. What Are Your Favourite Design Patterns, And How Do You Apply Them?

I often implement my level state and player character as singletons for gaming projects. I’ll utilize a factory to generate different opponents based on various inputs. Furthermore, the bullets fired by the character will be implemented in an object pool to avoid performance hits from excessive instantiation and trash collection. If the game becomes more complicated, I may use a compositional model such as Entity-Component-System. The system functions would then use dependency injection to boost the testability of the game logic.

24. What Steps Do You Take To Get A Project Back On Track If It Is Experiencing Difficulties?

I have several criteria I use to determine whether a project is running behind schedule. When I uncover a problem that may influence the project’s timeline, I investigate it thoroughly to decide if it is legitimate and needs to be addressed. If it is true, I will take corrective measures to mitigate it. If it isn’t, I coach the team member on the significance of staying on track and spend even more time checking their progress on the duties assigned.

25. What Do You Think About Software Testing?

Testing is critical to delivering high-quality software to our customers. However, in a new project, I will not usually start with them. Tests, in my opinion, are a mechanism for securing mature functionality. As we begin collecting usage stats and feedback, the project concept frequently diverges significantly from the final product. As a result, I’ll start with simple manual testing. I’ll begin implementing tests once the feature set has stabilized. The majority of my test suite will consist of unit tests that will focus on critical aspects of the application. I’ll also have a limited set of Selenium integration tests. To keep execution time to a minimum, I’ll concentrate those tests on the most critical user interactions.

26. Have You Handled Projects That Required The Use Of Remote Teams And Outsourced Resources?

Many projects I oversee, if not all, include distant team members and external resources, which is typical in IT initiatives. To manage each of these aspects, I employ a set of tools. Video conferencing, screen-sharing software, Gantt charts, outsourcing agreements, and daily Agile stand-up meetings are among them. These tools enable me to ensure that remote team members stay on target and that external resources are available when needed.

27. What Do You Believe Is The Most Crucial Part Of Developer-User Interaction?

I believe it is critical for developers to understand what users require from their software. I previously worked on a project where we were designing a new website interface for a corporation. The customer wanted us to make the site more user-friendly, but they weren’t sure what that entailed. We had to explain to them that our objective was to make the website more user-friendly so that users could discover things more quickly. This improved communication between the two sides.

28. What Distinguishes You From The Other Applicants For This Position?

I have five years of expertise as a network architect, which qualifies me for this position. I also have considerable experience with Cisco networking equipment. In my previous employment, I assisted in the implementation of additional security measures into our current network to protect against cyberattacks. This project needed me to collaborate with other IT specialists to build a secure network.

29. Tell Me About A Work Problem That Required A Complex Solution And How You Solved It With Your Team.

I had difficulty with a recent project when a software package did not perform as expected. The tool was made to help our sales team by collecting client data, tracking contacts, and placing and transferring orders to our warehouse for fulfillment and billing.

I was in charge of collaborating directly with our sales team, the outside software vendor, and accounts receivable people to determine how the data was obtained and where the problem lay. It was discovered that the off-the-shelf program did not capture crucial data required for billing and had to be changed.

I met with each department to determine what they required. I hired an outside provider to add custom data fields to their program so that I could bill customers. My team changed the interface with accounts receivable, sales began collecting extra tax and vendor ID information, and the problem was resolved.

This software package is still in use today, and the new data fields have helped to streamline billing. On average, the time between placing an order and receiving payment has been cut in half.

30. What New Software Or Technology Have You Recently Used, And How Did You Learn It?

Last year, my employer provided Microsoft 365 certification. I took advantage of the chance to take the beginning sessions. This certification is for cloud computing, and Microsoft 365 is a popular bundle, so I was excited to add this to my skill set. I was able to instantly use what I had learned, and I discussed with my supervisor a number of recent improvements in which we could leverage the SharePoint component of Microsoft 365 to better interact with our remote locations. My employer agreed, and I was able to migrate us to SharePoint, saving everyone time and frustration and allowing us to complete every project faster than previously.


In preparation, rehearse the questions and answers you’ve prepared, but don’t stress about remembering every detail. A good understanding of the essential topics will prevent you from script-reading’ your replies, but if necessary, identify relevant talents, attributes, and experiences from your CV that you wish to discuss.