Top 25 Python Pandas Interview Questions and Answers in 2023

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Pandas is a well-known Python data analysis and manipulation software toolkit. Pandas offer advanced data structures and tools for running complex data apps, allowing analysts and data engineers to change time series characteristics, tables, and other variables. This data analysis software is capable of handling a wide range of data types. Pandas is data manipulation and analysis software library written in Python. It includes data structures and operations to work with numerical tables and time series data. The term “panel data” is derived from the term “econometric data,” which refers to data sets that include observations for the same individuals over multiple time periods. Its name is an allusion to the phrase “Python data analysis.” Wes McKinney began developing what would become pandas while working as a researcher at AQR Capital from 2007 to 2010.

Pandas’ interview questions in Python revolve around functions, data structures, and the tool’s features. We’ve consolidated a list of the most relevant Panda Interview Questions and Answers in this article.

1. What Do You Know About Python Pandas? 

I have a Python certification and am well-versed in Python Pandas. A Python open-source library that offers high-performance data manipulation is called Pandas. Pandas are named after the term “Panel Data,” which stands for Econometrics from Multidimensional Data. Wes McKinney created it in 2008 to use data analysis in Python. It can perform five significant steps required for data processing and analysis, regardless of data origin, namely load, manipulate, prepare, model, and analyze.

2. What Qualifies You As A Good Problem, In Your Opinion?

I’ve been told that I have an aptitude for solving problems, which I attribute to my technical mind. I can analyze the issue, find a solution, and then apply that workaround to future projects to prevent the occurrence of a similar problem. I also have a big-picture mentality, so I can think of several solutions to each problem. I am open-minded, and before attempting to use various resources to solve problems, I discuss them with team members.

3. Could You List The Types Of Data Structures Available In Pandas?

 Yes, I have experience with Pandas and can describe the data structures. I have worked on DataFrames and Series, are the two types of data structures supported by the Pandas library. The foundation for both data structures is Numpy. Pandas have a one-dimensional data structure called Series and a two-dimensional data structure called DataFrame. Another axis label, Panel, a three-dimensional data structure with items, a major axis, and a minor axis, is also present.

4. Describe A Situation In Which You Forced Yourself To Complete A Task Or Assignment That You Did Not Want To Do.

 I tend to be active and motivated. But when forced to do something I don’t want to do, I turn around and become someone who works for money. I remind myself that the company pays me for my work and accomplishments, not for trying to understand it. Once the work began, I felt more like performing.

5. What Have You Learned From Your Experience With The Time Series In Pandas? 

My experience has taught me a lot about time series, it is an ordered sequence of data and essentially depicts how a quantity changes over time. Pandas have a range of features and capabilities for operating with time series data across all domains.

  • Pandas offers:
  • Analyzing time series data from different sources and formats
  • Create time and date sequences with fixed frequencies.
  • Date and time manipulation and conversion with time zone data
  • Re-sampling or frequency conversion of a time series
  • Calculation of dates and times using either absolute or relative time increments. 

6. What Led You To Become A Data Engineer?

Since I can remember, computers have attracted my attention. When I was in high school, I was certain that I wanted to make a career in computer engineering. I started to understand that I preferred my math and statistics classes almost as much as I liked my computer courses while I was a college student. My first job after graduating was as a data analyst for a sizing financial services organization. I enjoyed using my math and statistics skills, but missed using my coding and data management more. I became aware of the field of data engineering through some coworkers at my company, and I started taking training to learn more about it.

In my opinion, it was the ideal fusion of my skills and interests. Fortunately, a data engineering position in my company opened up within a year, and I switched without issues.

7. What About Being A Data Engineer Do You Find To Be The Most Challenging? 

Managing the occasionally conflicting demands of various departments within the company is one of the more challenging aspects of being a data engineer. One of the main struggles I frequently face is juggling the demands of the various departments with the limitations of our infrastructure. Even though it has been challenging, I always try to look on the bright side of things. I had to become knowledgeable about the operations to manage these competing demands. It enabled me to see how all the “pieces” fit together and provided me with a priceless, comprehensive view of the business. Since a few people are exposed to this perspective, I suppose I should consider myself privileged to have this challenge.

8. Describe When You Came Across A Use For Existing Data That Helped The Company.

As a data engineer, I make an effort to spend time learning about the company’s various strategic initiatives. I think departments should not operate in silos and should have authorized access to information that belongs to other company groups. To better understand the causes of both high and low sales periods, I linked employee data with sales data from the perspective of a data engineer. Further investigation revealed that hiring workers with a specific profile of training and work experience led to sustained and significant increase in sales. Human resource data wasn never combined with sales data for analysis before this discovery.

9. How Do You Deal With Challenging Coworkers Effectively?

I have occasionally had to work with a coworker who is not easy to get along with. Even though he was aware that some of the duties belonged to both of us, he preferred to work alone and didn’t like to work together. He always avoided or ignored me when I tried to collaborate with him. I began praising his achievements in front of others and took small steps to ease his burdens as a way to interact with him. As time went on, he started to trust me and help me with project requirements. 

10. What Does Pandas’ Reindexing Involve?

To explain reindexing in Panda, I would say that to conform to a new index with customizable filling logic data frame is reindexed. Where the elements from the previous index are missing, NA/NaN is used in their place. The copy value becomes false if the new index is equivalent to the existing one. It is to change the data frame’s rows and columns’ indexes. The reordering of the data to correspond with a new set of labels is one of the many operations that can be carried out through indexing. If there is no data for a label, insert missing value (NA) markers there.

11. Can You Describe Pandas’ Data Operations?

 Yes, I am well-versed in Pandas. Among its various useful data operations for Data Frame are the following:

Choosing a row and a column:

By providing the names of the rows and columns, can choose any row and any column from the data frame. When you choose it from the data frame, it is considered as series and has one dimension.

Sort Data: By including some Boolean expressions in the data frame we can filter the data.

Null values are produced when no information is provided about the items. No values, which are typically displayed as NaN in the columns, may be present in some of them.

12. Where Can Categorical Data Be Used?

Pandas categorical data is equivalent to a categorical variable. This variable typically only has a small, typically fixed range of possible values. We used categorical data in my previous organizations to rate items using Likert scales or to categorize items based on gender, blood type, social class, or affiliation with a country.

13. Have You Ever Created An Excel File From A Data Frame?

Yes, I converted a single object to an excel file while working on one of the Pandas categorical data projects by specifying the target file’s name. The target filename and the sheet that we want to export must be created in an ExcelWriter object, if we want to convert multiple sheets.

 14. Please Describe Some Python Pandas Features For Us.

With its Data Frame object, I would say Python Panda handles data quickly and effectively. It performs well when joining and merging data. Python Panda offers resources for importing data from different file formats into in-memory data objects. It has features for fancy indexing, subsetting, and label-based slicing of large data sets and use of Time Series. It offers to join and merge functions for data sets, which can be reshaped and pivoted using its functionalities.

15. In The Next Few Years, Where Do You See Yourself?

I find it difficult to predict what position I will hold in the next few years, but based on my performance, I would like to manage a group of creatives. I want to contribute to the company in any way I can.

16. Are You Aware Of The Different Types Of Data Structures Available In Pandas?

I am in the organization as a Data Engineer, where I used to work on Python Panda. I am aware of the different types of data structures. Those data structures are Series, Data Frames, and Panels. First is a Series that is immutable in size and homogeneous one-dimensional array data structure. Then there’s the Data Frame, a tabular data structure made up of rows and columns. Here, data and size are variable. The third is a three-dimensional data structure known as a “panel” to store the data heterogeneously.

17. What Responsibilities Did You Have As A Data Analyst?

It was my job as a data analyst to collect, purge, and analyze data to make better business decisions. Accounts, logistics, customer feedback, market analysis, and other data were provided as information. My role was critical as companies increasingly become data-driven and data analysts assist companies in making sense of the massive amounts of data they collect. A data analyst is a specialist who uses this data to determine various actions, including, to name a few, how to enhance the customer experience, retail price materials, and lower transportation costs. Data handling, data modeling, and reporting were once my responsibility. I look forward to using my five years of data analyst experience in this organization.

18. List All The Rows From a DataFrame.

The Pandas Dataframe Below Is Provided To You; Your Task Is To Group The Rows Of The Dataframe Into a List And Then Return a New Dataframe.

# Input

The output of the new column

# Row 1, has value of [1,2]

# Row 2, has a value of [5, 5, 4]

# Row 3, has a value of [6]

19. Which Techniques Do You Employ For Cleaning Data?

As a data analyst, I develop a data cleaning plan by identifying potential sources of common errors and keeping lines of communication open.I locate and eliminate duplicates before using the data. It will simplify and speed up the data analysis process. I concentrate on the accuracy of the data. Create mandatory constraints, maintain the value types of the data, and set cross-field validation. I make the data more orderly at the entry point by normalizing it. This ensures that all the data is uniform, which reduces entry errors. If I get the chance to join the company, I’d like to learn more about data gathering and cleaning.

20. How Are DataFrames Written To PostgreSQL Tables?

You can build an SQLAlchemy engine and write data from a DataFrame to a SQL database by using the Pandas to SQL module.

from sqlalchemy import create_engine

engine = create_engine(‘your_connection_string’)

df.to_sql(‘table_name’, engine)

21. What Industries Use Data Analytics, And How Does It Benefit Them?

The majority of business sectors use data analytics. These are some of the areas where data analytics is most effective. It is used in the banking and e-commerce sectors to identify fraudulent transactions. The healthcare industry uses data analytics to improve patient health by detecting diseases before they manifest and is used to detect cancer. It is employed in inventory management to track various items. By optimizing vehicle routes, logistics companies employ data analytics to ensure faster product delivery. Marketing professionals use analytics to perform targeted marketing and connect with the right customers in order to increase ROI. Cities would be planned and built using data analytics.

22. Do You Have Prior Experience With Both On-Premises And Cloud Databases?

I have first-hand knowledge of running databases both locally and remotely. I’ve also had experience managing databases housed at different data centers. Although the basic concepts of database administration are identical in all three of these cases, some additional concerns need to be taken into account. Lag, security, and how to back up the database between the two sites are a few. But once more, I’m comfortable with this and can complete this with ease. 

23. Could You Define ODBC For Me?

I take it from your use of the term ODBC that you mean Open Database Connectivity. Applications use this technique to interact with the database. These are also known as APIs. Database developers make it simple for application developers to build interfaces to the database and easily access the data by creating APIs or ODBCs for their databases. Every kind of database has a distinct ODBC.

24. Does SQL Support The Features Of Programming Languages?

No, it does not support the features of a programming language though SQL(Standard Query Language) is a language. There are no loops, conditional statements, or logical operations in this common language. It is only capable of being used for data manipulation and is a command language for working with databases. The main functions of SQL are to retrieve, modify, update, delete, and carry out intricate operations like joins on the data that is already present in the database.

25. How Can We Make a Pandas Version Of The Series?

The following syntax can be used to create a copy of a series-



The abovementioned statements create a deep copy that copies the data and indices. The indices and the data cannot be copied if we set the value of deep to False.


Python is one of the most widely used and adaptable programming frameworks for data science. All the data scientists, data engineers, risk analysts, and other professionals who need to work effectively with large datasets are increasingly choosing Python and Pandas. If you are preparing for job interviews and work in one of these fields, please take into account the questionnaire listed.